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The padaung people are one of the treasures of Myanmar and they mostly live in the southern Shan and Kayah States. The Kayan settled in the Demawso area of Karenni State (Kayah State) in 739 AD. Today they are to be found in Karenni (Kayah) State around Demawso and Loikow, in the southern region of Shan State and in Mandalay’s Pyinmana and Karen’s Than Daung Township. The Padaung tribe is related to another tribe, now extinct, the “Kayan”. The King of Kayan sent his son to King of Yunan, China, as an envoy. When the prince returned he was loaded with gifts and among all the things the Princess of Kayan loved the silver rings most. So much that she never took them off. So that, nowadays the Padaung women are were the silver rings at their neck.
The Padung woman is very easy to identify. The Kayan women are identify themselves by their different form of dress. Women of the Kayan Lahwi tribe are well-known for wearing neck rings, brass coils that are placed around the neck. For wearing of these rings shows confers and respect on the wearer's family. Every year one more ring is added and later on, they must be worn in legs and arms too. The rings are heavy, weighing almost 30 pounds. Not many have the skill to fit into the rings in a woman’s neck or take them out.
Padaung girls were fitted with the rings at the age of five or six. First, neck was carefully smeared with a salve and massage for several hours, after which a priest would fit small cushions under the first ring-usually made of bronze - to prevent soreness. These severe decorations express the Padaung women's own concept of beauty and social ranking but there are other theories concerning the origins of these rings. When women of marriageable age will probably have had her neck extended by aboui 25 cms. Unlike normal accessories, these rings are for life and may only be removed with the direst of results. Adultery among Padaung women has always been punished by the removal of the rings, a fate almost literally, worse than death. Many women have removed the rings for medical examinations. Most women prefer to wear the rings once their necks have become elongated, as the area of the neck and collarbone often becomes bruised and discolored. Additionally, the collar feels like an integral part of the body after ten or more years of continuous wear.
Other Kayan tribes display their beauty by wearing carved elephant tusk in their ears. When a woman is married, her ears are pierced with an elephant tusk of one to four centimeters in length and inserted. The weight of tusks gradually weights down the ear lobe, it get larger and longer. Each time larger tusks are inserted and the process repeats itself until the woman’s ears become extremely elongated and floppy. All the bachelors and the widowers live in a hostel in a Padaung village. Once they marry, they leave the hostel. As for the marriage of Padaung couple, the day is decided by killing a pig. If the liver of the pig remains exact, the marriage takes place. It is tested thrice. The simple-minded people of the tribe avoid marriage between relatives, to the extent of nine generations.
The age of a village can often be reckoned from the size of its jackfruit trees. Houses stood in small, neat squares made of woven and split bamboo with palm leaf roofs each home had a spacious, open terrace where the Padaung sat in the shade in front to their looms, spinning and weaving cotton textiles, blankets and tunics. Some of the bamboo walls were stained blue where cloth had been hung to dry.
The major religious festival is the 3-day Kay Htein Bo festival, which commemorates the belief that the creator god gave form to the world by planting a small post in the ground. The festival held in late March or early April. This festival is held to venerate the eternal god and creator messengers, to give thanks for blessings during the year, to appeal for forgiveness, and pray for rain. It is also an opportunity for Kayan from different villages to come together to maintain the solidarity of the tribe. In present times the annual Kay Htein Bo festival is always accompanied by a reading of the chicken bones. “Cleansing Ceremonies” are held when a family has encountered ill fortune. Dreams are also used to make predictions.
Although most people have heard about Naga tribes, there are some who have seen them and only a few have been to their area. Naga is an only small ethnic but beauty and colorful race group. In the north – west, Myanmar – India border, all are based on simple, straightforward, hard-working and honest people with a high standard of integrity lived at the mountain region. Naga race are amalgamation of many ethnic group settle down with the North Eastern part of India and north-western Burma. But ethnic group have same cultures and traditions, and form the common ethnic group in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Nagaland. There have main towns of the Naga region; they are Khamti, Lahe, Leshi and Htamanthi. Some of the outstanding Naga tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema (Sumi), Mao (Memei), Yimchunger, Zeliang. The Naga people have no common language, Tibeo- Burma : Angami-Pochuri, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul, and Zeme branches. All of Naga people are career with agriculture and livestock breeding. They farm for Paddy, Corn, Soyabean, and other pulses, garlic, onion, cauliflower and orange, almonds and bananas. They also grow tea and coffee on the hill inclines. They also rear for one special species for farm animal "Nwa Nauk"; it is larger and has vigor than the Myanmar cow of the plains. It is one of the different points between the cow and the buffalo. They also rear for pigs, goats and chickens. The Naga people are headhunters. Headhunter is to take the heads in combat to undoubtedly the fertility of their fields and to safeguard their villages. Naga tribes are competence headhunting and preserved the heads of enemies as trophies before the 19th century. Concerning with matrimonial affairs, they usually use for monogamous and fidelity between each other is considered a high virtue. They have no consent for involvements to be incest. If they involve, all of people are ostracized from the villages. There is behaving respectfully for parents and elders in the Naga society. This is the main point for the family. They can get like as heritage such as land and cattle, is passed on the male descendant with the eldest son obtaining the largest share. The visitor will be the temporarily built long huts when visit to Naga land. All the guests have to sleep together (men and ladies are separately). We will provide for the blankets, pillows, mosquito nets. We recommended for warm clothes because the average temperature is about 0°C.
“Salon” nation from Myanmar, they refer to themselves as Morgan. They are freely roaming in the ocean with small boat from birth to death. These ethnic groups known as "Sea Gypsies" are still found from the Philippines to Borneo to Thailand to Burma. They don’t have home they used their small boat as home. Their lives are romantic but actually, they are fight for their survival. These natural pearl are restrained by sea gypsies, who sail from island to island. During dry season they live on boat and fishing nets but during rainy season they rest at land and repaired their boat after end rainy season they left their rest place and move to sea. Next rainy season they are not sure for their rest place and may be new. They learnt fishing and boat building techniques for generation to generation. These people can be found near the Kawthaung Island. The never do farming on land. They survived by doing roam in the sea and marine products which get in their strange by using various traditional ways.
They are really skillful people which concern with sea. They can dive without oxygen tanks to gather real pearl from the deepest underwater. They can hunt for stingrays and sharks without any modernized equipments. They searched for sea cucumber and abalone. They lives very hard life but they scorn modern medicines, they thought they don’t need any medicine for survival. During the hot and cold season they survived by fishing, gathering and selling of natural marine products. During the rainy season, they can’t sail on boat because of so windy and roughly sea waves. And they settle down at the nearest island they could find. They search and sell marine products like not only sea shells, oysters, mollusks, ambergris, seaweeds, pearls etc. but also nest that is safe to eat, honey, plants. They worship two spirit gods- the good and the evil. During the spirit festival, the shaman is the central element. At this festival include pop corn, alcohol, and honey betel, flesh and blood of ducks, chickens, dolphins and turtles. One of their musical instruments is made from monitor lizard skin.
The sea gypsies’ festival celebrates during the second week of February at Ma-Kyon-Galet village on Lampi Island. It is located at the southern part of Myeik Archipelago. The visitors can see the sea gypsy’s dances and traditional dances of local tribes of Dawei and Kawthaung. And also feel the charming beauty of the sea and wonderful islands of Myeik Archipelago.
The Pah-O people are one of the Myanmar ethnic groups in Shan State and lies between two mountain ranges from south to north. The population is about 60,000. The 99% of the Pah-O people are Buddhism and another less than 1% is Christian. They have their own language that was translated by the missionary in 1961. Whatever the religion is different; Pah-O people can read and understand clearly each other. The Pah-O wear colorful clothing until King Anawratha defeated the Mon Ling Makuta who had founded his reign in Thaton.
The houses of Pah-O people are built with Cherry and Pinewood. But some houses are built with giant bamboos and every house is fenced. Thatch is mostly use for roofing and some are use zinc sheets. The houses are long legs, buffalos and cow can be bred under them. While clime the house along the stairways, visitors will discover a small roofed platform outside of the house. That is the place to put off shoes. While enter the house, visitor can feel the hospitality and friendliness of sweet and smiling Pah-O family members. There has cold weather all the long months; every house has only one very small window. There is a plenty of strange things to discover one side of the roof is longer than the other side of the roof. A young unmarried woman who works in smooth and gentle timing the motor works was wonderfully.
Nant Bay villagers live totally relying in mountain torrents which continuously flow in the region. The Nant Bay village is situated in a wide valley. When the water let to flow, the coming out water can be operated on self-reliant 25 KVA hydroelectric power wheels. Some villagers collect water at their house for grind rice and grain water wheels. As the village is on valley, the staple rice, garlic and pigeon pea are grown well. For farming village, rainwater is also important. Every Jul, Nant Bay villagers use to wish for rains in their traditional way. In Myanmar, such kind of occasion is called Moe Khaw Pwe for the welcome of Rain ceremony.
The Chins are the Tibet-Burma people living at the great mountain chain running up western Myanmar into Mizoram in north-east India. Capital of Chin state is Hakar. There are 14 townships in the Chin State: Cikha, Hakha, Falam, Kanpale, Matupi, Rezua, Mindat, Paletwa, Rihkhuadar, Thantlang, Taddim, Tuithang and Tonzang. There have 52 sub-tribes among the chin. Many Chins settle in the middle to the north of the state care to call themselves Mizo. In the past the arduous terrain meant there was little communication between villages. The Chins had to aid on their lowland neighbors for food and supplies in times of emergency. Modern development and the foundations of basic extent have made their life easier. We have been known for 1.5 million Chins in Myanmar, we can distinguish for more than forty sub-groups by their matchless of facial tattoos and costumes. Some women live in the southern
Chin Hills are still tattoo at her face. The tattoo tradition knowledge began a thousand year ago. The man from neighboring places captured pretty Chin girls as Salvery. The reason is girl's facial tattoo are refrain from grabber of compel. But tattoo designs are different between Munn, Makhan and Dine tribes. Tattoo of Munn's deigns is a line of small circles throughout the neck, straight lines making half moon shape for the cheeks. Young women of the Munn tribe in Mt. Victoria field are eager to do this customs. Dine's deigns is a lot of spots the whole face. Dine ladies are also show that they exert to be drudge and its testimony was a ring shapes tattoo around the ankles which they still have today. Makhan's deigns is like as a spider-net shape tattoos, it can't be found around Mindat. At present, we can't see the mass the female chins with tattoos on their faces in north and central Chin state, but we can see other south Chin villages still detention this tradition.
In the hilly chin state harrow are created for many narrow flat levels in a hillside. It is not easy to farming for the cattle in their mountain areas. Chins are cultivating for corns, rice, beans, potatoes, mustard, mandarins, apples, mulberry, and grapes. Chin races are famous like as hunters. The chin Hills are covered with thick forests and plentiful for wildlife. Firstly, they used for traditional knots and arrows but later with local-made black power guns. But, now, the Chin people began capably for hunt. If you visit to inside of Chin house in any Chin village, you will see the skulls of animals on their wall that the shot of themselves. There will be skulls of mithans, bears, wild boars, sambhurs, muntjacs, monkeys and hornbill beaks adoring the wall.